A note about Publishing Houses
Most of the books listed in the "Further Reading" sections of the first three and some subsequent essays were issued by just a few publishing houses. For good reason: Baker Book House, Eerdmans Publishing Co., Fortress Press, InterVarsity Press, Westminster-John Knox Press, and Zondervan Publishing House specialize in books on religious topics written primarily by Christians from evangelical and reformed traditions. Other religious presses whose books appear in these and future essays include Orbis Books, Paulist Press, Templeton Foundation Press, and Trinity Press International. Many books written by Christian scholars of all traditions are published by major university and trade presses, such as Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, University of Notre Dame Press, Blackwell Publishing, and Harper-Collins Publishers; some will appear in the essay bibliographies.
Many articles consulted for these essays appear in periodicals devoted to theology, biblical studies and issues in science and religion. They include the following publications available to Berea College students in the periodicals section of the Berea College Hutchins Library:
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith (PSCF). The Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation (ASA), 1941-present. A very large and growing number of articles, letters and reviews from PSCF are accessible on line at the ASA web site, www.asa3.org.
Science & Theology News, 2000-present; an independent periodical. To learn more, go to www.stnews.org.
Science and Christian Belief, 1989-present, sponsored by Christians in Science (United Kingdom). Selected articles may be accessed on line at www.cis.org.uk/scb/articles.htm.
Science & Spirit, 1990-present; an independent periodical. Its on-line web site is www.science-spirit.org.
Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science, 1965-present, sponsored by the Institute of Religion in an Age of Science. Its on-line address is www.iras.org/publications.html.
Associations, organizations, and discussion lists devoted to the exploration of issues in religion and science
The American and international organizations, associations, and forums listed below are some of the many that are dedicated to the exploration of issues in science and religion. Some of these sites provide a wealth of essays, articles, conference papers, news reports, and interviews with prominent scientists and theologians of many faith traditions. Several, such as the ASA site, provide links to an even larger number of organizations and listservs.
Web sites of associations, research institutes, universities, individuals, and discussion lists devoted to specific topics such as cosmology, evolution, creationism, environmental ethics, geology, intelligent design, and so forth are listed in the sections which follow.
Big Bang and the Universe Story
Curious about Astronomy: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/index.php.
This richly informative web site developed by Cornell University provides a wealth of information about all aspects of Big Bang theory, astronomy and cosmology, and the history of the universe
Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology: http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmolog.htm.
This site maintained by Professor Edward L. (Ted) Wright of UCLA is another valuable source of information about cosmology and astronomy. Dr. Wright is a member of the WMAP survey team.
This site provides a comprehensive collection of published photos of the universe taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, along with a wealth of information and updates of new discoveries.
Sloan Digital Sky Survey: http://www.sdss.org/.
This ambitious program, the work of a number of cooperating universities and independent scientific laboratories, will map in detail one-quarter of the entire sky, determining the positions and absolute brightnesses of more than 100 million celestial objects. New releases update the project's progress.
WMAP Mission Results: http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm.html.
Here you will find articles summarizing the results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe's survey of the early universe.
Evolution and Human Evolution
This award-winning site is designed to promote literacy in the biological sciences. Besides evolution, the site includes sections on biodiversity, environment, genomics, biotechnology, and new frontiers in biology. The site belongs to the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Becoming Human: http://www.becominghuman.org/.
On this outstanding site by paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson takes the viewer on a journey through human evolution. Requires broadband connection.
Cal State Fullerton: http://nsmserver2.fullerton.edu/departments/chemistry/evolution_creation/web/.
Dr. James R. Hofmann and his colleague Bruce H. Weber have amassed a huge number of links to articles, books, web sites, etc. on virtually every topic having to do with the scientific aspects of evolution and the evolution/creation controversy.
An offspring of the 13-part series on Evolution this PBS site offers a considerable number of links through its "Evolution Library" to writings dealing with all aspects of evolution.
Human Origins and Evolution in Africa: http://www.indiana.edu/~origins/.
This site is maintained by Dr. Jeanne Sept, professor of Anthropology at Indiana University, and includes links to other sites dealing with human evolution. Dr. Sept does field research on hominid sites in Africa.
The Smithsonian Institution Human Origins Program: http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins.
This informative site offers an up-to-date presentation of the evidence for hominid evolution. Produced under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History.
The Talk Origins Archive: http://www.talkorigins.org/.
One of the most valuable sites for facts about evolution and its critics, including young earth creationism and intelligent design. The materials on evolution present mainstream science. Many articles answer objections raised against evolution.
Understanding Evolution: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/.
This attractive web site is designed to aid teachers of evolution. It contains numerous sections that introduce the reader to the nature of science, the central concepts of and evidence for evolution, misconceptions about evolution, and the history of evolution as science. Further sections provide useful materials for teachers. Created by the University of California Museum of Paleontology.
THEOLOGIES OF AN EVOLVING CREATION
Probably the great majority of Christians in the United States are not aware that for the past forty years, many evangelical and mainline Protestants, Anglicans/Episcopalians of both evangelical and catholic traditions, and Roman Catholics have been engaged in positive reflection on the relationship between Christian faith and modern science. Many of them are forging new theologies that integrate the modern scientific portrait of a universe characterized by cosmic and biotic evolution with a Christian understanding of creation. These men and women include theologians and ethicists, former or current research scientists, and science educators. It is a striking fact that many who have practiced science have also become ordained ministers and priests. Some have produced general studies on the relationship between religion and science; some have worked on theoretical aspects of religious and scientific ways of knowing; some have explored the ethical implications of science and technology; some have written specifically on theology of creation in an evolutionary world. Below I introduce a number of these persons and list some of their publications; those marked with an asterisk are thinkers from European or American evangelical or reformed traditions. (Berea College students will find many of their books in the Hutchins Library.)
A pioneer in the study of the relationships between religion and science, Barbour earned a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Chicago, and a degree in theology from Yale Divinity School. After a distinguished teaching career during which he explored with his students the theological implications of modern science, Barbour retired as the Bern Professor of Science, Technology and Society at Carleton College. He was awarded the John Templeton Foundation Prize for Progress in Religion in 1998. Barbour continues to lecture and lead workshops on issues in religion and science
- 1990: Religion in an Age of Science
- 1991: Ethics in an Age of Technology
- 1998: Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues
- 2000: When Science Meets Religion
*R. J. Berry
A scientist and evangelical Anglican layman, Berry is past president of the British Ecological Society, Christians in Science, and the Linnean Society. He was professor of genetics at University College, London, from 1978 to 2000, and has written on Christianity and environmental stewardship.
- 1999: Science, Life and Christian Belief (with Malcolm Jeeves)
- 2001: God and Evolution: Creation, Evolution and the Bible (with a new forward)
After earning a doctorate in plant physiology and publishing several scientific articles, Deane-Drummond turned her interests to theology and wrote a Ph.D. dissertation on the theology of Jűrgen Moltmann. She now writes holds the chair of Theology and Biological Sciences at Chester University in England. Deane-Drummond has a special interest in the ethics of biotechnology.
- 1996: A Handbook on Theology and Ecology
- 1997: Theology and Biotechnology: Implications for a New Science
- 2000: Creation through Wisdom: Theology and the New Biology
- 2003: Biology and Theology Today: Exploring the Boundaries
Edwards teaches theology at the Flinders University School of Theology in Adelaide, South Australia, and is a respected Roman Catholic theologian writing on theology of creation and evolution.
- 1991: Jesus and the Cosmos
- 1999: The God of Evolution: A Trinitarian Theology
- 2004: Breath of Life: A Theology of the Creator Spirit
John F. Haught
Professor of theology and director of the Georgetown Center for the Study of Science and Religion at Georgetown University, Haught is one of the foremost Roman Catholic theologians writing on the impact of Darwin and evolution on Christian faith.
- 1996: Science and Religion: From Conflict to Conversation
- 2000: God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution
- 2001: Responses to 101 Questions on God and Evolution
- 2003: Deeper Than Darwin: The Prospect for Religion in the Age of Evolution
Ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Hefner is Emeritus Professor of Systematic Theology, Lutheran School of Theology, and former director of the Chicago Center for Religion and Science. He also served as editor of "Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science."
- 1993: The Human Factor: Evolution, Culture and Religion
- 2003: Technology and Human Becoming
Professor Emerita of Theology in the Vanderbilt Divinity School, McFague is presently Distinguished Theologian in Residence at the Vancouver School of Theology. She is a leading writer on ecological theology.
- 1987: Models of God: Theology for an Ecological, Nuclear Age
- 1997: Metaphorical Theology: Models of God in Religious Languages
- 2000: Life Abundant: Rethinking Theology and Ecology for a Planet in Peril
McGrath earned degrees in mathematics, physics and chemistry, and pursued research in biophysics. Later, he switched to divinity and was ordained a priest in the Church of England. He has held various university positions in theology including his present chair at Oxford. McGrath has published widely, including popular and scholarly works on theology and science.
- 1998: Science and Religion: An Introduction
- 2004: The Science of God: An Introduction to Scientific Theology
- 2004: Dawkins' God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life
*Keith B. Miller
A field geologist at Kansas State University, Miller is a fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation and a founding member of the Society of Christian Geologists. A member of the Evangelical Free Church of America, he has been on the forefront of promoting good science education in Kansas.
- 2003: Editor and contributor, Perspectives on an Evolving Creation
One of the most admired theologians of our time, Moltmann is presently professor of systematic theology in the Protestant Faculty of the University of Tűbingen in Germany. Some of his theological studies consider the intersection of creation and science.
- 1993: God in Creation: A New Theology of Creation and the Spirit of God
- 2001: "God's Kenosis in the Creation and Consummation of the World," in The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis, ed. by J. Polkinghorne.
*George L. Murphy
Ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, Murphy also holds a Ph.D. in Physics from the Johns Hopkins University. A fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation, he teaches theology and science at Trinity Lutheran Seminary and is a pastoral associate at St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Akron, Ohio.
- 2001: Toward a Christian View of the Scientific World
- 2003: The Cosmos in the Light of the Cross
An ordained minister in the Church of the Brethren, Murphy is Professor of Christian Philosophy at Fuller Theological Seminary, and a prize-winning writer.
- 1990: Theology in the Age of Scientific Reasoning
- 1997: Reconciling Theology and Science: A Radical Reformation Perspective
- 2000: On the Moral Nature of the Universe (with George F. R. Ellis)
A physical chemist who made important contributions to DNA research during his career as a scientist, Peacocke was ordained to the priesthood of the Church of England in 1971. Founding member of the Society of Ordained Scientists and sometime director of the Ian Ramsay Centre for the study of religion and science, he was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion in 2000.
- 1993: Theology for a Scientific Age: Being and Becoming—Natural, Divine, and Human
- 1996: From DNA to Dean: Reflections of a Priest-Scientist
- 2001: Paths from Science towards God
- 2004: Evolution: The Disguised Friend of Faith?
A particle physicist who contributed to the discovery of the quark, Polkinghorne gave up a distinguished professorship at Cambridge University to become a priest in the Church of England (1982). He is a member of the Society of Ordained Scientists, and a winner of the Templeton Prize (2001). In addition to an extensive body of scientific papers, he is author of eight books exploring the relationship between religion and science. They include the following:
- 1996: The Faith of a Physicist: Reflections of a Bottom-Up Thinker
- 1996: Quarks, Chaos and Christianity: Questions to Science and Religion
- 1998: Belief in God in an Age of Science
- 2001: Editor, The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis
- 2005: Science and Providence: God's Interaction with the World (2nd edition)
- 2006: Exploring Reality: The Intertwining of Science and Religion
William G. Pollard (1911-1989)
A nuclear scientist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first nuclear weapon, Pollard became a Christian, and was ordained to the Episcopal priesthood. He served St. Stephen's parish in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, while he was also executive director of Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Pollard was a pioneer in the work of bringing science and religion together as intellectual partners. (Pollard gave a convocation lecture on big bang and the evolution of the cosmos at Berea College several years before his death.)
- 1958: Chance and Providence: God's Action in a World Governed by Scientific Laws
- 1961: Physicist and Christian: a dialogue between the communities
- 1987: Transcendence and Providence: Reflections of a Physicist and Priest
*Samuel M. Powell
Powell, a professor of philosophy at Point Loma Nazarene University, is now Dean of the School of Theology and Christian Ministry at PLNU. He was awarded a Templeton Foundation Science and Religion Course Prize in 1997. His recent book, listed below, was awarded the Smith-Wynkoop Prize by the Wesleyan Theology Society.
- 2003: Participating in God: Creation and Trinity
Robert John Russell
A physicist and educator, Russell founded and directs the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences (CTNS) in Berkeley, CA. Ordained to the ministry of education in the United Church of Christ (Congregational), Russell has written many papers on topics in science and religion. Some have been published in the CTNS-Vatican Observatory series subtitled "Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action" which he co-edited (below):
- 1993: Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature
- 1995: Chaos and Complexity
- 1998: Evolutionary and Molecular Biology
- 1999: Neuroscience and the Person
- 2001: Quantum Mechanics
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955)
Teilhard's odyssey as a scientist, theologian and mystic took him to China's Gobi Desert in the 1930s, where he helped to discover fossils of Homo erectus there. His writings on God and evolution troubled Vatican theologians, and he was forbidden to publish his works during his lifetime. In recent years his pioneering ideas have enjoyed a revival, and some consider him one the most important thinkers of the twentieth century. (Dates below in parentheses are of translations or reprintings.)
- 1955 (1959): The Phenomenon of Man; (new translation, 1999): The Human Phenomenon
- 1969 (1971): Christianity and Evolution
- (2001): The Divine Milieu
- (2002): The Heart of Matter
- (2004): The Future of Man
*Thomas F. Torrance
One of the most important Reformed theologians of the twentieth century, Torrance has influenced generations of students while teaching at the University of Edinburgh. He served as General Moderator of the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) in 1976. Torrance was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion in 1978. He has made important contributions to the understanding of science and theology as theoretical disciplines.
- 1980: Christian Theology and Scientific Culture
- 1985: Reality and Scientific Theology
- 1989: The Christian Frame of Mind: Reason, Order, and Openness in Theology and Natural Science
- 2005: Theological and Natural Science
*J. Wentzel van Huyssteen
Wentzel van Huyssteen, a native of South Africa, is the James I. McCord Professor of Theology and Science at Princeton Theological Seminary. An award-winning scholar, he has specialized in postmodern theology and philosophy of science. Some of van Huyssteen's recent books explore both particular and common features of religious and scientific ways of knowing.
- 1998: Rethinking Theology and Science (with Neils H. Gregersen)
- 1998: Duet or Duel? Theology and Science in a Postmodern World
- 1999: The Shaping of Rationality: Toward Interdisciplinarity in Theology and Science
- 2003: General Editor: Encyclopedia for Religion and Science
Howard J. Van Till
Professor Emeritus of Physics at Calvin College, Van Till is a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion. He has served on the executive boards of the American Scientific Affiliation and the John Templeton Foundation. He remains active as a lecturer on God and evolution and has turned his attention lately to process theology. (Van Till gave a major convocation presentation on creation and evolution at Berea College in 1999.)
- 1986: The Fourth Day: What the Bible and the Heavens are Telling Us about the Creation
- 1988: Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (with Davis Young and Clarence Meninga)
- 1990: Portraits of Creation: Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on the World's Formation (with Robert Snow, John Stek, and Davis Young)
- 1999: "The Fully Gifted Creation," in Three Views of Creation and Evolution, ed. by J. P. Moreland and J. M. Reynolds
- 2000: "Science and Theology as Partners in Theorizing," in Science and Christianity: Four Views, ed. by Richard F. Carlson
Essay VIII: Young Earth Creationism
There are numerous young earth creationist web sites. Some belong to local and regional organizations, others are sites established by individuals. I list below sites of national organizations that are the most influential in promoting and spreading strict creationism. Those interested in reading YEC literature can find numerous examples on all these sites.
Answers in Genesis
Founded by Australian-born creationist Ken Ham AIG is an apologetics ministry that promotes a strict creationist interpretation of the Bible and Christian Faith. The organization provides numerous publications, and its staff gives lectures and workshops throughout the United States. AIG’s new Creation Museum is open for visitors near its headquarters in Florence, Kentucky, just 100 miles north of Berea.
Creation Research Society
CRS describes itself as an independent “professional organization of trained scientists and interested laypersons that are firmly committed to scientific special creation.” CRS maintains a research program, publishes research studies, and provides a speakers’ bureau. Its Van Andel Research Center is located near Chino, Arizona.
Institute for Creation Research
Founded by Henry Morris and now directed by his son John, ICR maintains a graduate program through the Institute and promotes creation science within a biblical context. The Institute and its creation museum are located in Santee, California. Its publications are widely distributed. ICR refers to itself as “a Christ-centered ministry.”
Provides numerous links to other creationist web pages.
In the past Berea College students have been known to use and view materials produced by Kent Hovind of Creation Science Evangelism. They should know that other creationists, including the Answers in Genesis team, have rejected some strict creationist arguments advanced by this self-styled “Dr. Dino.” Having been charged with numerous violations of law over a ten-year period, Hovind was convicted in Federal court in November 2006, on 58 counts of tax fraud and is now serving a ten-year prison sentence; he was ordered to pay $640,000 in restitution to the US government.
Former YECs who offer alternative Christian ways of understanding Creation and modern science
There is a pattern that emerges in the stories of former YECs who have abandoned strict creationism. At some point in their lives they became true believers in YEC dogma, completely convinced that their fidelity to Christian faith required belief in a young earth and a global flood. So their subsequent journeys from YEC took many years. They had to wrestle with two deeply intertwined issues. First, scientific research and investigation slowly convinced them that the creation science they had been taught was wrong. Second, this scientific crisis led to a crisis of faith. Many years passed before some were able to finally let go of YEC and adopt a Christianity that was evangelical, Bible-based, and compatible with the facts of science they had come to accept. Here are the stories of three who are members of the American Scientific Affiliation, and have degrees in the natural or applied sciences.
Glenn Morton’s Home Page
Morton graduated from YEC Heritage Christian College with a degree in physics, and entered the petroleum industry. Over many years, as he studied the physical data gathered about geological formations, it became clear that everything he had been taught at HCC and elsewhere about Flood geology was simply wrong. After a difficult inner struggle over many years he was finally able to give up YEC and still maintain a conservative Christian faith. You can read the powerful story of his odyssey in an article Morton published in 2000 in PSCF: “The Transformation of a Young Earth Creationist” (http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2000/PSCF6-00Morton.html). Morton, who once wrote articles for YEC publications, now devotes most of his writing to refuting YEC scientific claims (see below).
Dr. Denis Lamoureux’s Home Page
Lamoureux holds three doctorates, in dentistry, biology and theology. An award-winning teacher of science and religion at St. Joseph’s College of the University of Alberta, he is a Pentecostal Christian who daily nourishes a personal relationship with Jesus and embraces a charismatic form of worship. Having come to Christ in 1979, he rejected evolution and sought to become a creation scientist. But in 1984 world-class evangelical Bible scholars like biblical inerrantist J. I. Packer and Bruce Waltke convinced him that the Bible is not a book of science. Later, he studied the development of the jaw and teeth, still intending to find arguments against evolution. He was surprised to discover that instead the evidence pointed conclusively to evolution. So, in 1994, he gave up YEC. Now Lamoureux lectures, writes and teaches about his model of “Evolutionary Creation.”
Dr. William E. Hamilton
Hamilton committed his life to Christ at the age of twenty-nine, when he also earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering. A woman in his church convinced him that he needed to believe in a young earth, and he remained a strict creationist for several years. Then he began to discover the fallacies of certain YEC arguments for a young universe, and learned from geologists how accurately they could date the earth’s history to establish its 4.6 billion years old age. Eventually, he accepted an ancient universe and biological evolution, and abandoned YEC. Hamilton is an elder in the Evangelical Presbyterian Church. He is interested in communicating with YECs, especially younger adherents, through email. You may access Bill's email by clicking his name, above.
Testimonies of other former YECs may be found at this link on the ASA web site
Web sites providing critical analyses of creation science
The Talk Origins Archive
Talk Origins is a Usenet group “devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins” The Archive contains perhaps the most comprehensive and wide-ranging collection of scientific articles that examine and critique YEC arguments.
DMD Publishing Company
On this site, ASA member Glenn Morton makes available an extensive number of writings (books, articles, book reviews) that offer detailed analyses of young earth creationist scientific claims.
Answers in Creation
Answers in Creation is “a creation science ministry believing in the inerrant Word of God, a literal interpretation of Genesis, and a billions of years old earth.” While its materials reflect primarily the “old earth” or progressive creation position, AIC acknowledges that it is also possible to accept evolution and be a Christian. (Progressive creationists interpret the “days” of creation as great periods of time during which God created new species at successive stages.) Some 1,300 articles are accessible on this site, the great number of which critique YEC arguments.
Genesis Proclaimed Association
Established by ASA member Dick Fischer, its web site contains a number of articles critiquing YEC in such areas as biblical interpretation, claims about the Flood, radiometric dating, age of the earth, evolution and hominid evolution, and other topics.
American Scientific Affiliation: On Line Resources
This link will take you to a series of articles that address questions of science and faith, including creation and evolution, astronomy and cosmology, and the Bible and Science generally. One can also use the Google engine on the page to search the ASA site for various pertinent articles from PSCF.
A CLARIFICATION: Writings by several members of The American Scientific Affiliation have supported much of the critique of YEC in this essay. However, the ASA does not require that its members accept an ancient universe and evolution. While only a relatively small number of strict creationists belong to the organization, its membership includes a number of persons who are progressive creationists and/or accept Intelligent Design as scientific theory.