Accession Number: 42
Pine Mountain Settlement School Records, 1911-1983
Selected Photographs, 1864-1984
Part A - Selected Records
Series I -
Minutes and Reports, 1913-1983
Series II - Director's
Office Files, 1911-1949
A - Correspondence, 1916-1949
B - Subject Files, 1911-1949
Series III - Student
Records, c. 1919-1949
Series IV - Library
Part B - Selected Photographs
Part B: Description of the Selected Photographs, ca 1864-1984
From a total of 9,756 original images, 3,685 images were selected for duplication.
While the total date range is 120 years, the majority of the images were made
between 1913 and 1974.
Images dating through about the mid 1920s record the daily lives, homes, occupations
and surroundings of the area population as well as the planning, establishment
and activities of the school. The photographs show a close interaction between
school and community. Photos from the mid-1920s to the most recent focus more
narrowly on the school programs and activities, but include records of some community
events. Construction of several campus buildings is well documented in this collection,
as are program changes made by the school to meet developing educational needs
of the area.
Although each image is marked with the series from which is drawn,
in the boxes images are arranged by subject, rather than series.
Thus reproduced images having to do with folk arts, for example,
may be found together, regardless of the series from which they
originated. (See Contents Collection Summary.)
||Kendall Basset Album, ca 1927
This series consists of 106 images chosen from among 127 made by Kendall Basset,
a worker at the School, ca 1920. They are dated 1927 and document PMSS environs,
logging, and activities of students and local residents.
The 390 images in this series were selected from 938 original mounted prints.
The photographs date from 1913 and extend through the 1970's. This series documents
buildings, grounds, recreational areas and surrounding landscapes through various
stages of the school's development. Most campus buildings, both past and present,
are represented. With changing needs of the school and its programs, some buildings
have held several popular names at different times, according to their various
uses. Included also are photographs depicting construction progress on Big Log,
Hedges Chapel, and the New Laurel House.
Interior views are also included and show a variety of artifacts and furnishings.
Most of the furniture depicted in the photographs was made at the school by students,
especially the larger pieces. Additionally, the original Creech log cabin was
moved to the school campus after William's death in 1918, and converted into
a memorial / museum, preserving many of the couple's tools and possessions including,
his handmade furniture and her hand-woven blankets, coverlets and clothing. Interiors
of this cabin can be found in Series VI: Friends and Neighbors. It is designated
in this collection as "Aunt Sal's Cabin".
This series consisting of 486 images selected from 1244 mounted prints, focuses
on student activities, from their beginning in 1913 through 1949. Pine Mountain
offered students a total living experience and education. Student labor requirements
were interwoven with classroom, dormitory, recreational, health, and nutritional
activities. Training and labor assignments in early years included farming, woodworking,
food preparation and other kitchen tasks. Also included are views of sewing,
sports, games, traditional dancing and music activities, lime burning, print
shop operation, and auto mechanics. Evidence of early food preservation can be
seen in photographs displaying strings of "shucky beans" or apples hanging from
roof eaves and along porches.
The 47 mages in this series, selected from 117 mounted prints, document Christmas
celebrations at Pine Mountain Settlement School, beginning with the first Nativity
play in 1917 and continuing through 1984. Other activities depicted include a
performance of a minuet and an old English Mummers Play.
A selection of 57 images, dated 1972-1983, were made from 177 original mounted
prints.that document the Environmental Education Program inaugurated in 1972.
Participants included students, elementary through college level, and groups
of teachers and other adults. Photographs in this series include classes and
trail walks, and depictions of activities relating soil conservation, water and
forests, ecology, and geology.
This series consists of 573 images, dated 1972-1983, chosen from among 1102 mounted
prints. Predominant dates range from 1913 through the 1940s. Faces, families,
homes, occupations, schools and pastimes from the earliest days are shown. The
images also document changes in people and their surroundings resulting from
decreased isolation. Several families are depicted through three generations.
Activities include sorghum making, flax preparation, farming, logging, mining,
and construction of the road over Pine Mountain. This series also includes interior
and exterior views of mountain homes and schools. Some of the school room pictures
show Pine Mountain graduates serving as regular or emergency teachers.
Also of interest are images of people shown with an item or in a setting relating
to their occupations. For example, Mrs. Causey, a basket-maker, is always shown
holding a small basket; a clergyman is depicted holding his Bible; an itinerant
preacher is pictured with his suitcase; and "Fiddler John" Lewis usually holds
his fiddle. Photographs of "Aunt Sal" Creech often include a spinning wheel,
and her husband, "Uncle" William Creech is shown farming, running a general store,
and serving as postmaster.
This series consists of 717 images chosen from among 3,318 mounted prints. They
provide a comprehensive cross section of school life and activities from the
1940s through the 1970s. Included are portraits and candids of students and staff
in the classroom, and views of the play-ground, farm and dairy. There are also
views of student industries, health activities, recreation, and buildings and
grounds maintenance. Many persons are identified by name. Of particular interest
are several images documenting the activities of two early kindergarten programs.
Floods, forest fires and construction of a logging railroad through the campus
are shown in this brief series. The ways students and staff coped with these
events are documented in 32 photographs selected from among 51 mounted prints.
Approximate dates for these photographs are from 1929 and 1935 for the flooding
and 1931 and 1934 for the forest fires. Dates for railroad construction are from
the late teens through the 1920s.
This series consists of 56 images chosen from among 100 mounted prints with dates
ranging from approximately 1930 to 1961. Included are graduating classes and
other group photographs as well as a variety of candid pictures.
This series consists of 145 photographs chosen from among 239 mounted prints
ranging in dates from 1913 to 1983. Staff members are shown interacting among
themselves, with students, neighbors and other friends. Events portrayed include
neighborhood visits, outings, banquets, "Dogwood Breakfasts," as well as conditions
of travel and modes of transportation.
Mountain Early Days
This series consists of 518 images chosen from among 816. It depicts a comprehensive
view of the Pine Mountain area prior to industrialization. People are shown in
daily activities at their homes and in interaction with schoolteachers, medical
staff and visitors. Many photographs include identifications of people and places.
There is one image (#2612) of "Uncle William" Creech in his Union Army uniform,
and one (#2613) of Katherine Pettit, on her first visit to Harlan Town in 1899.
Also depicted are the hauling of supplies over Pine Mountain, the construction
of Big Log, ballad singing, and local excursions. A particularly notable feature
of these images is the extensive documentation they provide of local clothing
styles from the 1913-1920 era.
This series consists of 57 images (circa 1914 through the 1920s) chosen from
among 73 made by Helen DeLong, a younger sister of Ethel DeLong Zande. They document
area residents, scenery, flax preparation, dancing.
This series consists of 71 images (1943-1946) chosen from among 79 credited to
Arthur Dodd, although it is not clear wether as photographer or collector. Dodd
taught English, played the organ and visited prospective students. Photographs
depict daily school routine and campus views, with emphasis on classroom activities.
Foundation Movie Stills, 1942
This series consists of 72 images chosen from among 306 views derived from a
1942 promotional film that depicts school activities, students, staff, and school
surroundings. Of particular note are photographs concentrating on student labor
programs. Interaction between students and staff is shown in views of kitchen
chores, housekeeping, dairy and farm work, and the co-op store.
Laurel and Line Fork Extension Center
This series consists of 75 images chosen from among 126 (1920s-1940s). It documents
Little Laurel Extension Center, also known as the Medical Settlement, started
in the spring of 1919 and staffed by Harriet Butler and Dr. Grace Huse. The Line
Fork Center began in 1920 and was staffed by Isabella McClannan and Martha Van
Meter. Activities photographed include medical services, as well as home visits
This series consists of 48 images chosen from among 192 dating primarily from
1914. Ethel McCullough appears to have been associated with the school during
its earliest years. Subjects include families, staff, homes, farm-steads, landscapes
This series consists of 63 images chosen from among 222 dating mainly from the
1930s. They depict the campus, students and staff, student theatrical productions,
individuals and family groups. Margaret Motter came to Pine Mountain in 1928
and stayed for ten years, serving as teacher and principal of the school. She
returned in the mid-1940s as a field representative for the school's publicity
True Photographs, 1923
This series consists of 15 images chosen from among 51 made in 1923. They document
an excursion into the Pine Mountain area made by Katherine True and Enid Rutledge.
Images consist mainly of landscapes and residents' activities.
This series consists of 113 photographs chosen from among 331 dating from
1899 to 1971. Subjects include trails, roads, homesteads, valley and mountain
views, creeks, and falls.
Collection Contents Summary
Part B, Selected Photographs, 1864-1984
3,685 photo reproductions in Boxes 15-46
- Activities, cont.
- Architecture, cont.
Box 29, cont.
- Campus Buildings & Grounds
- Campus Buildings & Grounds, cont.
- Folk Arts
- Landscapes, cont.
Boxes 38 - 42
- People, cont.
- Portraits, cont.
- Special Programs/Outreach
- Special Programs/Outreach, cont.
- Street Scenes
Home > Special
Collections & Archives > Southern
Appalachian Archives > Guide to the Pine
Mountain Settlement School Records