Accession Number: 3
Southern Appalachian Studies Records (1962 Regional Survey)
Linear Feet 72
Overview & Series Description
Series I- Interdenominational Conference 1956-1957
Series II - Weatherford Correspondence 1958-1965
Series III - Board of Directors Correspondence 1958-1962
Series IV - Ford Foundation
Series V - Religion
Boxes 35-78 | Boxes
Series VI - Writers' Conference
Series VII - Urban Planning
Series VIII - Education
Series IX - Health, Welfare, and Local Government
Series X - Agriculture
Series XI - Industrialization
Series XII - Folk Arts
Series XIII - Tourism and Attitude Survey
Series XIV - Household Survey
Series XV - Codes
Series XVI - Finance
Series XVII - Miscellaneous Papers
Series XVIII - Newspaper Clippings
Series XIX - Card Files
Series XX - Highway Maps - Oversize
Series XXI - Tabulation sheets and IBM cards - Oversize
Overview of the Collection
The records of the Southern Appalachian Studies (1962 Regional Survey) were given
to Berea College by various survey participants during the period 1962 - 1977
and were opened for research in 1980. The major restriction placed upon the collection
involves the protection of confidentiality of the survey interviewees: written
acknowledgement of responsibility in honoring confidentiality will be required
of all researchers before access to the survey collection can be given.
The survey resulted from the 1956 Interdenominational Conference of Religious
Workers' determination that there was inadequate information available to develop
an effective course of action addressed to the broad of problems plaguing the
Appalachian region and its people. The conference of representatives from major
church bodies had originally been called together by Dr. Willis D. Weatherford,
Sr., to discuss these problems and to plan programs orientated to upgrading the
quality of education and religion in the area. The conference delegates approached
Dr. Francis Hutchins, President of Berea College, to ask for the use of office
facilities for the purpose of establishing headquarters and gathering data on
the Appalachian region. With Dr. Hutchins' approval, Dr. Weatherford and Dr.
Rupert Vance compiled a comprehensive list of Southern Appalachian Studies research
projects and recruited staff members from the region's universities, colleges,
and government agencies to implement the project. The studies were financed primarily
by a $250,000 grant from the Ford Foundation with additional expenses being defrayed
from the cash and services contributed by the area's churches and educational
institutions, raised largely through Dr. Weatherford's personal efforts.
The main purpose of the project was to gather, analyze, and publish data relating
to the region so that people of the Appalachian area could better understand
their own worth and ability as well as inform the federal government about the
level of poverty and lack of economic opportunity in the region. The studies
were to: (1) examine the changes in Appalachia since the 1935 United States Department
of Agriculture study of the area; (2) determine the educational, religious, and
social influences of the region; (3) study church conditions and the differences
between urban and rural churches; (4) study the attitudes towards increased industrialization;
(5) assess the immediate needs of the people; (6) contribute toward the capability
of social agencies to meet the needs of the people.
The organization of the Southern Appalachian Studies consisted of a sponsoring
committee, the central staff, and the research staff. The sponsoring committee
became the Board of Directors upon incorporation, and was made up of denominational
representatives, university representatives, a Berea College representative,
and a representative of the Council of the Southern Mountains. The central staff
consisted of W.D. Weatherford, Sr., Director of Administration; Howard Beers
(and later Thomas R. Ford), Director of General Research; Earl D.C. Brewer, Director
of Religious Research; and Rupert Vance, Research Consultant. The research staff
was headed by project directors for each section of the survey who worked somewhat
independently of the central staff and each other. In the words of Thomas R.
Ford, "The guiding philosophy was to find a good scholar, give him a fairly clear
idea of the problems to be investigated, and turn him loose."
The results of the study were published in the form of two books, The Southern
Appalachian Region: A Survey (1962), edited by Thomas R. Ford, and an accompanying "layman's
interpretation," Life and Religion in Southern Appalachia (1962), by W.D.
Weatherford, Sr., and Earl Brewer. The Ford publication was divided into five
topical areas: "The Passing of Provincialism," "The Changing Population," "The
Changing Economy," "The Changing Society," "Folk Arts in Transition." The Weatherford
-- Brewer book was designed for use by church discussion groups of various denominations
to promote awareness of these problems and opportunities of the region.
The collection has been divided into two categories: General Administrative Records
and Project Records. The first category, General Administrative Records, includes
Series I - IV and covers the conception, planning, and organizational material
of the Board of Directors. The largest portion of the first category consists
of the files and correspondence of W.D. Weatherford, Sr., Director of Administration.
The Project Records section includes Series V - XIV and contains records of each
area of research, raw survey data, and associated correspondence. The remaining
Series (XV - XXI) include the more general aspects of the study such as clippings,
card files, oversized tabulation sheets, general finance, and research coding.
There are also tapes, recorded (Boxes 166- 180) with transcriptions placed in
Series V - Religion Research.
180 Manuscript Boxes
||Interdenominational Conference, 1956-1957
This series includes minutes, notebooks, reports, handbooks, contracts, and correspondence
of W.D. Weatherford, Sr. The Ford Foundation prospectus, project history, and
other related papers are also included. The major portion of this material gives
an account of the formative period of the studies, which evolved from the conference.
||Weatherford Correspondence, 1958-1965
This series is arranged chronologically then alphabetically, and incorporates
the administrative business and the research topic plans of the studies. Also
included is the correspondence of the administrative secretary and contributors
along with the miscellaneous documents pertaining to the source materials used
by the studies. Five audio tapes related to a research staff meeting, dated June
12, 1959, are located separately in the Berea College Appalachian Archives. NOTE:
Certain miscellaneous documents have become separated from the original Weatherford
correspondence they were once matched with, particularly items ranging from A-G.
Reference to these items may be made in the Weatherford correspondence. These
materials have been collected and are located in Box 14 following the correspondence.
||Board of Directors' Correspondence, 1958-1962
The correspondence of the various directors of the Southern Appalachian Studies
is included in this series along with progress reports and newspaper articles.
The contents of these boxes are arranged primarily in chronological order, and
This section of the collection contains the financial information for the Southern
Appalachian Studies. Material related to a tour of the Appalachian region by
Northern industrialists is included along with miscellaneous correspondence from
persons who expressed interest in the studies. This series is arranged alphabetically
Included in this series is the religious survey material pertaining to the Southern
Appalachian Studies. The field workers' notebooks and survey schedules are also
located in this section of the collection -- along with a copy of the book Life
and Religion in Southern Appalachia, co-authored by E.D.C. Brewer and W.D.
Weatherford, Sr. Various other materials, such as religious correspondence, lectures,
and material related to the Lake Junaluska conference, are included in this series.
The typewritten transcripts of interviews with ministers, laypersons, and church
groups recorded on audio tapes are included here. The tapes are located separately
at the end of the collection. Box 62 contains a complete listing of tape codes
and transcripts. NOTE: The boxes of tabulations from the religious survey are
stored at the end of the collection.
Included in this series is the organizational material related to the conference
for regional authors sponsored by the Southern Appalachian Studies. Also placed
in this series are a list of the names of the mountain writers, manuscripts,
and bibliographies of the literature of Appalachia, and the study of regional
libraries. Five audio tapes of the conference dated July 20-21, 1959, are located
separately in the Southern Appalachian Archives of Berea College.
The questionnaires related to the urban survey sponsored by the southern Appalachian
Studies are in this series along with the computer sheets and instructions. Also
included in this section is material concerning the Urban Adjustment Workshop,
the tour of the region by business and professional participants from the workshop,
and a social study. Four audio tapes of the Urban Adjustment Workshop tour briefing,
dated July 13-14, 1959, are located separately in the Southern Appalachian Archives
of Berea College.
The Southern Appalachian Studies' plans to research the educational status of
the Appalachian region are included in this series. Correspondence between the
studies' staff and the area's superintendents of education and school principals
are also included, along with an evaluation of the Report of Education.
||Health, Welfare, and Local Government
The correspondence between county health officers of different states or various
organizations involved in the implementation of the studies' findings and the
Southern Appalachian Studies is included in this series, as well as manuscripts
and publications related to the subject of health care. Five audio tapes of the
September 18-19, 1959 implementation meeting are located separately in Box 166
(AS/OR 01-1, 01-2,01-3,01-4, 01-5). The tabulation is located in Boxes 162-165.
This series consists mainly of correspondence between the Southern Appalachian
Studies and regional home and farm demonstration agents or soil conservation
agents. One manuscript related to area farming is included here also. NOTE: Oversized
items are at the end of this collection.
Two manuscripts, miscellaneous reports, news clippings, and correspondence comprise
this series along with the project plans of the Southern Appalachian Studies.
This series incorporates a questionnaire, a manuscript, various pamphlets concerning
dances, music, games, correspondence, and regional study either initiated by
the Southern Appalachian Studies or received by the Southern Appalachian Studies.
Material related to the attitude survey - raw data, tabulations, coded schedules,
and interpretations - are included in this series along with a couple of items
on Southern Appalachian tourism.
The questionnaire used in the survey and the raw data collected related to the
household survey are located in this series as is a brief summary report. The
material is organized by state, county, and/or city, and date.
This series includes the key to the IBM programming and the code keys for the
following survey tabulations: household, religion, industry, and education. (Oversized
tabulations are contained in Series XXI.)
These boxes contain paid bills, financial planning from the Interdenominational
Conference of 1962, contribution records, and conference financial records.
This series contains a variety of pamphlets and other literature from outside
sources that were consulted in the preparation of the different projects of the
Southern Appalachian Studies. Folder 12 contains Senate and House Bills concerning
Appalachia and employment.
Arranged in chronological order from 1957 to 1968, this series includes news
articles, from both local and national papers, related to the studies.
This series includes the mailing lists used by the Southern Appalachian Studies
for the following groups: general, conference attendants by conference, newspaper
editors, educators, board members, resource persons, and research applicants.
Arranged by states, the maps included in this series are both highway and topographical
maps that were used in the research and travel phases of the Southern Appalachian
Studies, along with some statistical maps.
||Tabulation Sheets and IBM Cards- Oversized
Included in this series are the tabulation sheets used in compiling and analyzing
the survey data by the Southern Appalachian Studies along with one set of keypunched
IBM cards. Also included in this series are the maps related to the agriculture
or farm survey conducted by the studies.
The tapes were recorded as part of the religious survey. The tapes of general
interest include central staff and research staff meetings, implementation meetings,
the Appalachian tour briefing, Writer's Conference, and the National Council
of the Churches of Christ in America meeting. Additionally, other tapes include
church meetings, layperson discussion, and minister discussions. Transcriptions
of these tapes are located in Series V, and Box 62 contains the codes and listings
for these taped interviews. Note: An * denotes that the reels marked have no
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